Nā mea e pili ana i ka digestibility o ka meaʻai ma ka meaʻai holoholona

Ⅰ.ʻO nā kumu o ka meaʻai

1. ʻO ke kumu o nā ʻāpana meaʻai a me ka ʻike piha o nā meaʻai e pili i ka hoʻoholo ʻana o ka digestibility.Ma waho aʻe o kēia, ʻaʻole hiki ke nānā ʻole ʻia ka hopena o ka hana ʻana i ka meaʻai i ka digestibility.

2. ʻO ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa ʻana i ka nui o nā meaʻai meaʻai hiki ke hoʻomaikaʻi i ka digestibility, no laila e hoʻomaikaʻi ai i ka hoʻohana ʻana i nā meaʻai, akā e alakaʻi ia i ka hoʻemi ʻana i ka huahana i ka wā e hana ai i nā meaʻai, hoʻonui i nā kumukūʻai hānai, a hoʻemi i ka neʻe.

3. Hiki ke ho'opō'ino i ka waiwai waiwai o ka mea'ai a no laila ka digestibility i nā kūlana hana o ke ke'ena ho'oma'ama'a mua, ka'i 'ana i ka pōpō, ke ka'ina o ka mahu extrusion a mea malo'o paha.

4. Hiki i ka hānai a me ka mālama ʻana i nā holoholona ke hoʻopili i ka digestibility, e like me ke ʻano a me ka nui o nā meaʻai i hānai mua ʻia.

Ⅱ. ʻO nā kumu o ka holoholona ponoʻī

Pono e noʻonoʻo ʻia nā mea holoholona, ​​ʻo ia hoʻi ka pua, ka makahiki, ke kāne, ka pae hana, a me ke kūlana physiological i ka wā e hoʻoholo ai i ka digestibility.

1. Ka mana o nā ʻano like ʻole

1) I mea e aʻo ai i ka hopena o nā ʻano ʻano like ʻole, Meyer et al.(1999) hana i ka ho'āʻo ʻai ʻana me 10 mau ʻīlio ʻokoʻa ke kaupaona ʻana he 4.252.5 kg (4 a 9 ʻīlio no kēlā me kēia ʻano).Ma waena o lākou, ua hānaiʻia nā'īlio ho'āʻo i nā meaʻai pāʻoihana canned a maloʻo paha me kahi mea maloʻo maloʻo o 13g / (kg BW · d),ʻoiai ua hānaiʻia nā wolfhounds Irish i nā meaʻai canned me kahi mea maloʻo maloʻo o 10g / d.(kg BW·d).ʻOi aku ka nui o ka wai i loko o nā ʻōpū, ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi o ka pehu haʻahaʻa a me ka neʻe pinepine ʻana o ka ʻōpū.I loko o ka hoʻokolohua, ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka wai ma mua o ka Labrador retriever i nā feces o ka ʻano nui loa, ʻo ka Irish wolfhound, me ka manaʻo ʻaʻole ʻo ke kaumaha wale nō ke kumu e noʻonoʻo ʻia.He liʻiliʻi ka ʻokoʻa o ka digestibility ma waena o nā ʻano like.ʻO James lāua ʻo McCay (1950) lāua ʻo Kendall et al.(1983) ʻike i nā ʻīlio liʻiliʻi liʻiliʻi (Salukis, German Shepherds and Basset hounds) a me nā ʻīlio liʻiliʻi (Dachshunds and Beagles) i like ka digestibility, a ma nā hoʻokolohua ʻelua, ua kokoke loa nā paona kino ma waena o nā ʻano hoʻokolohua ʻokoʻa. in digestibility ua liilii.Ua lilo kēia wahi i wahi kuhi no ka maʻamau o ke kaumaha o ka ʻōpū pili me ka loaʻa kaumaha mai Kirkwood (1985) a me Meyer et al.(1993).ʻO ke kaumaha o ka ʻōpū o nā ʻīlio liʻiliʻi he 6% a 7% o ke kaumaha o ke kino, aʻo ke kaumaha o nā ʻīlio nui e hāʻule i 3% a 4%.

2) Weber et al.Ua aʻo ʻo (2003) i ka hopena o ka makahiki a me ka nui o ke kino i ka digestibility o nā meaʻai extruded.Ua ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o ka digestibility i nā ʻīlio nui ma nā makahiki āpau, ʻoiai ʻo kēia mau ʻīlio nui he haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a ʻoi aku ka nui o ka wai o ka waihona.

2. Ka hopena o ka makahiki

1) Ma ka haʻawina a Weber et al.(2003) ma luna, ua hoʻonui nui ʻia ka digestibility o nā macronutrients i nā ʻano ʻehā o nā ʻīlio i hoʻohana ʻia i ka hoʻokolohua me ka makahiki (1-60 pule).

2) Shields (1993) noiʻi ma French Brittany puppies hōʻike i ka digestibility o ka maloʻo mea maloʻo, protein a me ka ikehu ma 11-wiki-keiki ilio he 1, 5 a me 3 pakeneka haʻahaʻa ma mua o ka 2-4 makahiki kahiko ilio makua, pakahi. .Akā ʻaʻohe ʻokoʻa i ʻike ʻia ma waena o nā ʻīlio 6 mahina a me 2 mau makahiki.ʻAʻole maopopo i ka emi ʻana o ka digestibility i loko o nā ʻīlio ma muli o ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka ʻai meaʻai wale nō (ke kaumaha o ke kino a i ʻole ka lōʻihi o ka ʻōpū), a i ʻole ka emi ʻana o ka hana digestive ma kēia pūʻulu makahiki.

3) Buffington et al.(1989) hoʻohālikelike i ka digestibility o nā ʻīlio beagle mai 2 a 17 makahiki.Ua hōʻike ʻia nā hopena, ma mua o ka makahiki 10, ʻaʻohe emi o ka digestibility i ʻike ʻia.I ka makahiki 15-17, ua ʻike ʻia kahi emi liʻiliʻi o ka digestibility.

3. Ka hopena o ke kāne

He liʻiliʻi nā haʻawina e pili ana i ka hopena o ke kāne ma ka digestibility.ʻO nā kāne i loko o nā ʻīlio a me nā pōpoki ʻoi aku ka kiʻekiʻe o ka hānai ʻana a me ka excretion ma mua o nā wahine, a ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi o ka digestibility meaʻai ma mua o nā wahine, a ʻoi aku ka hopena o nā ʻokoʻa kāne i nā pōpoki ma mua o nā ʻīlio.

III.Nā kumu o ke kaiapuni

ʻIke ʻia nā kūlana hale a me nā mea kaiapuni i ka digestibility, akā ʻo ka noiʻi ʻana i nā ʻīlio i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i loko o nā hīnaʻi metabolic a i ʻole nā ​​​​kennels mobile ua hōʻike i ka digestibility like me ka nānā ʻole i nā kūlana hale.

ʻO nā kumu kaiapuni kūpono, e like me ka mahana o ka ea, ka haʻahaʻa, ka wikiwiki o ka ea, ka uhi ʻana o ka papahele, ka insulation a me ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka mahana o nā paia a me nā hale, a me kā lākou mau pilina, hiki ke loaʻa i ka hopena i ka digestibility nutrient.Hana ʻia ka mahana ma o ka hoʻopaʻi ʻana i ka metabolism no ka mālama ʻana i ka mahana o ke kino a i ʻole ka ʻai ʻana i ka meaʻai ma nā ala ʻelua.ʻO nā kumu kaiapuni ʻē aʻe, e like me ka pilina ma waena o nā mana a me nā holoholona hoʻāʻo a me ka photoperiod, hiki ke loaʻa nā hopena i ka digestibility nutrient, akā paʻakikī kēia mau hopena i ka helu ʻana.


Ka manawa hoʻouna: Iune-16-2022